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Category: Grammar

Download e-book for iPad: Gender Shifts in the History of English (Studies in English by Anne Curzan

By Anne Curzan

How and why did grammatical gender, present in previous English and in different Germanic languages, progressively disappear from English and be replaced through a process the place the gender of nouns and using own pronouns rely on the ordinary gender of the referent? How is that this shift concerning 'irregular contract' (such as she for ships) and 'sexist' language use (such as widely used he) in sleek English, and the way is the language carrying on with to conform in those respects? Anne Curzan's accessibly written and punctiliously researched learn relies on huge corpus info, and may make an important contribution by way of delivering a historic viewpoint on those frequently debatable questions. will probably be of curiosity to researchers and scholars in heritage of English, ancient linguistics, corpus linguistics, language and gender, and medieval studies.

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Read e-book online Natural Language Computing: An English Generative Grammar in PDF

By Ray C. Dougherty

This book's major objective is to teach readers find out how to use the linguistic thought of Noam Chomsky, referred to as common Grammar, to symbolize English, French, and German on a working laptop or computer utilizing the Prolog machine language. In so doing, it offers a follow-the-dots method of typical language processing, linguistic idea, synthetic intelligence, and specialist platforms. the fundamental notion is to introduce significant solutions to major difficulties excited by representing human language info on a working laptop or computer. The e-book bargains a hands-on method of somebody who needs to achieve a standpoint on normal language processing -- the computational research of human language information. all the examples are illustrated utilizing laptop courses. The optimum manner for somebody to start is to run those current courses to achieve an knowing of the way they paintings. After gaining familiarity, readers can start to regulate the courses, and finally write their very own. the 1st six chapters take a reader who hasn't ever heard of non-procedural, backtracking, declarative languages like Prolog and, utilizing 29 complete web page diagrams and seventy five courses, aspect the way to signify a lexicon of English on a working laptop or computer. A bibliography is programmed right into a Prolog database to teach how linguists can control the symbols utilized in formal representations, together with braces and brackets. the subsequent 3 chapters use seventy four complete web page diagrams and 38 courses to teach how facts constructions (subcategorization, choice, word marker) and methods (top-down, bottom-up, parsing, recursion) an important in Chomsky's thought might be explicitly formulated right into a constraint-based grammar and carried out in Prolog. The Prolog interpreters supplied with the publication are essentially just like the costly Prologs, yet they lack the rate and reminiscence capacities. they're excellent because something discovered approximately those Prologs incorporates over unmodified to C-Prolog and Quintas at the mainframes. someone who reviews the prolog implementations of the lexicons and syntactic rules of mix can be capable of use Prolog to symbolize their very own linguistic information at the most complicated Prolog machine to be had, no matter if their facts derive from syntactic thought, semantics, sociolinguistics, bilingualism, language acquisition, language studying, or a few similar zone during which the grammatical styles of phrases and words are extra the most important than techniques of volume. the published examples illustrate C-Prolog on an Ultrix Vax, a regular college configuration. The disk incorporated with the booklet includes shareware model of Prolog-2 (IBM workstation) and MacProlog (Macintosh) plus types of the courses that run on C-Prolog, Quintas, Prolog-2, and MacProlog. Appendix II includes information regarding tips on how to use the net, Gopher, CompuServe, and the unfastened extra BBS to obtain the most recent copies of Prolog, courses, lexicons, and parsers. All figures (100+) within the publication can be found scaled to make complete dimension transparencies for sophistication lectures. helpful unique positive factors of this quantity comprise: * greater than a hundred complete web page diagrams illustrating the elemental techniques of ordinary language processing, Prolog, and Chomsky's linguistic theories; * greater than a hundred courses -- illustrated in no less than one script dossier -- exhibiting tips to encode the representations and derivations of generative grammar into Prolog; * greater than a hundred consultation records guiding readers via their very own hands-on periods with the courses illustrating Chomsky's conception; * a 3.5" disk (IBM layout) containing: 1. all courses in types to run in C-Prolog or Quintas Prolog on an Ultrix Vax, and on an IBM computing device and a Macintosh, 2. a shareware model of Prolog-2 for IBM laptop clones which runs all courses within the ebook, three. a shareware model of MacProlog for Macintosh which runs all courses within the booklet; * directions on utilizing net, CompuServe, and the loose extra BBS to obtain the newest copies of Prolog, courses, lexicons, and parsers; and * a number of references allowing scholars to pursue questions...

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Download PDF by Andrew Carnie: Syntax: A Generative Introduction (Introducing Linguistics)

By Andrew Carnie

Andrew Carnie’s bestselling textbook on syntax has guided hundreds of thousands of scholars during the self-discipline of theoretical syntax; protecting its acceptance as a result of its blend of easy language, accomplished insurance, and various routines. during this 3rd version, subject matters were up-to-date, new routines additional, and the web assets were multiplied.

  • Supported by means of accelerated on-line student and instructor resources, together with additional chapters on HPSG,  LFG and time-saving fabrics for teachers, together with challenge units, PowerPoint slides, and an teachers’ manual
  • Features new chapters on ellipsis, auxiliaries, and non-configurational languages
  • Covers subject matters together with word constitution, the lexicon, Case idea, stream, covert stream, locality stipulations, vice president shells, and control
  • Accompanied through a brand new non-compulsory workbook, on hand individually, of pattern challenge units that are designed to provide scholars better adventure of interpreting syntactic structure

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Speculative Grammar and Stoic Language Theory in Medieval - download pdf or read online

By Jeffrey Bardzell

In his Plaint of Nature (De planctu Naturae), Alan of Lille bases a lot of his argument opposed to sin quite often and homosexuality specifically at the declare that either volume to undesirable grammar. The publication explores the philosophical makes use of of grammar that have been so formative of Alan’s pondering in significant writers of the previous generations, together with Garland the Computist, St. Anselm, and Peter Abelard. the various linguistic theories on which those thinkers depend come from Priscian, an influential sixth-century grammarian, who relied extra at the old culture of Stoic linguistic concept than the Aristotelian one in elaborating his grammatical thought.

Against this backdrop, the publication presents a analyzing of Prudentius’ Psychomachia and provides an research of allegory in gentle of Stoic linguistic idea that contrasts different sleek theories of allegorical signification and readings of Prudentius. The e-book establishes that Stoic linguistic idea is appropriate with and certain in part formative of either the allegorical medium itself and the guidelines expressed inside of it, specifically as they seemed within the allegories of Prudentius, Boethius, and Alan.

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New PDF release: An Introduction to English Sentence Structure

By Andrew Radford

This extraordinary source for college kids deals a step by step, functional creation to English syntax and syntactic ideas, as built by way of Chomsky over the last 15 years. Assuming very little earlier heritage in syntax, Andrew Radford outlines the middle thoughts and the way they are often used to explain quite a few features of English sentence constitution. this can be an abridged model of Radford's significant new textbook Analysing English Sentences (also released through Cambridge college Press), and should be welcomed as a convenient creation to present syntactic theory.

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Read e-book online Visual Grammar: No Mistakes Grammar, Volumes I, II, and III PDF

By Giacomo Giammatteo

This ebook is a mix of No error Grammar volumes I, II, and III. yet it’s a lot more. It has a few new fabric, however it additionally has approximately 2 hundred photos. That’s right—pictures.
This is likely one of the world’s first, if no longer the 1st, visible grammar e-book. most folk research greater with photographs. With visible Grammar, you get photos that exhibit examples of the phrases you’re studying. now not each note has an image yet loads of them do.
This booklet contains misused phrases, redundancies, absolutes, flat adverbs, eponyms, idiomatic expressions, Latin words, and more.

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Get English Grammar PDF

By Evelyn P. Altenberg,Robert M. Vago

trying to find an easy-to-use advisor to English grammar? this convenient advent covers all of the fundamentals of the topic, utilizing an easy and easy sort. scholars will locate the book's step by step procedure effortless to persist with and be inspired by means of its non-technical language. Requiring no previous wisdom of English grammar, the knowledge is gifted in small steps, with goal ideas to aid readers follow new innovations. With transparent motives and good selected examples, the e-book offers scholars the instruments to appreciate the mysteries of English grammar in addition to the ideal beginning from which to maneuver directly to extra complicated topics.

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Read e-book online Optimality-Theoretic Syntax (Language, Speech, and PDF

By Géraldine Legendre,Jane Grimshaw,Sten Vikner

Recent paintings in theoretical syntax has published the robust explanatory strength of the
notions of economic climate, festival, and optimization. construction grammars solely upon those elements,
Optimality idea syntax presents a concept of common grammar with a officially distinct and strongly
restricted idea of common typology: cross-linguistic version arises completely from the
conflict between common principles.Beginning with a basic advent to Optimality Theory
syntax, this quantity presents a complete evaluation of the state-of-the-art, as represented through the
work of the top builders of the speculation. The vast variety of issues taken care of includes
morphosyntax (case, inflection, voice, and cliticization), the syntax of reference (control,
anaphora, and pronominalization), the gammar of clauses (complementizers and their absence), and
grammatical and discourse results in be aware order. one of the theoretical subject matters working all through are
the interaction among faithfulness and markedness, and numerous questions of typology and of

Contributors: Peter Ackema, Judith Aissen, Eric Bakovic, Joan Bresnan,
Hye-Won Choi, João Costa, Jane Grimshaw, Edward Keer, Géraldine Legendre, Gereon Müller, Ad
Neeleman, Vieri Samek-Lodovici, Peter Sells, Margaret Speas, Sten Vikner, Colin Wilson, Ellen

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Get Eleven Steps to Instantly Improve Your Writing PDF

By Dona Young

11 Steps takes the secret out of ways to provide transparent, concise writing that will get to the purpose. each one bankruptcy covers ideas so that you can follow instantly to accomplish reader-friendly writing that will get results.

If you base your enhancing judgements on guesses instead of trained offerings, now could be the time to forestall the uncertainty--it is costing you an excessive amount of time, attempt, and credibility. permit 11 Steps to immediately enhance Your Writing exhibit you the way.

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Download e-book for kindle: Removing Redundancies from Scholarly Writing: A guide to by John Garger

By John Garger

every thing you must establish and take away redundancies from scholarly writing. Scholarly writing is hard simply because few graduate courses contain formal guideline on how you can divulge examine via writing. moreover, so much scholars and researchers learn scholarly works for content material, now not constitution, grammar, and exposition. the result's scholarly authors who're surrounded via the writing they want to emulate, yet who don't know the best way to realize and follow the foundations of scholarly writing. This publication presents (1) an summary of writing present in magazine articles, dissertations, and theses, (2) a dialogue of redundancies present in every kind of prose, together with scholarly writing, (3) a number of how you can discover ways to accommodate studying kinds, and (4) three hundred examples of the commonest redundancies that seem in scholarly writing. either sensible and transformative, elimination Redundancies from Scholarly Writing teaches researchers easy methods to produce magazine articles, dissertations, and theses which are concise, transparent, exact, and reliable—the hallmarks of scholarly writing. each researcher from pupil to veteran writer will enjoy the method of elimination redundancies this publication offers.

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